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2018: Husband-and-wife research team, Dr. Stefano Montanari, and Dr. Antonietta Gatti have been investigating micro- and nano-particles, and their effects on human health, for decades.

The duo has published hundreds of studies, many using their own electron microscope, linking nano-particles to many different health issues and disease.

These particles; found all throughout pharmaceuticals and the environment, have been documented as health hazards, contributing to miscarriage, fetal malformations, and the development of cancer.

The two are very well-versed in their field, with Dr. Gatti being recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization as an expert in nanotechnologies, responsible for several research contracts with various universities, and a member of the European Scientific Commission on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices.

Gatti has been in charge of the laboratory where she and her husband conduct their research, the Laboratory of Biomaterials at the University of Modena for over 30 years.

So it really came as a surprise when, on February 22, 2018, Gatti’s laboratory was raided by the Finance Police on the accusation of a scam related to their electron microscope.

Every inch of their home and lab was searched, and data, computers, and paper documents seized, with no word on their possible return.

This raid came just days before Gatti was scheduled to address the courts in Lanusei with the findings in seized documentation, and during a time period where the couple had a full schedule of conferences and teaching events planned. And, with all copies of their materials taken, the pair would be forced to cancel their schedule.


Key excerpts from the Dr. Stefano Montanari, and Dr. Antonietta Gatti research.


Vaccines are one of the most notable inventions meant to protect people from infectious diseases.

The practice of variolation is century old and is mentioned in Chinese and Indian documents dated around 1000 A.D.

Over time, variolation has been replaced by vaccination, vaccines have been enhanced as to technology, and the vaccination practice is now standardized worldwide. Side effects have always been reported but in the latest years it seems that they have increased in number and seriousness, particularly in children as the American Academy of pediatrics reports.1,2 For instance, the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP) vaccine was linked to cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS);3 measles-mumpsrubella vaccine with autism;4,5 multiple immunizations with immune disorders;6 hepatitis B vaccines with multiple sclerosis, etc. The notice of Tripedia DTaP by Sanofi Pasteur reports “Adverse events reported during post-approval use of Tripedia vaccine include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, SIDS, anaphylactic reaction, cellulitis, autism, convulsion/grand mal convulsion, encephalopathia, hypotonia, neuropathy, somnolence and apnea”.

The epidemiological studies carried out did not show a clear evidence of those associations, even if in 2011 the National Academy of Medicine (formerly, IOM) admitted: “Vaccines are not free from side effects, or adverse effects”.7

Specific researches on components of the vaccines like adjuvants (in most instances, Aluminum salts) are already indicated as possible responsible of neurological symptoms8‒10 and in some cases, in-vivo tests and epidemiological studies demonstrated a possible correlation with neurological diseases.10,11 Neurological damages induced in patients under hemodialysis treated with water containing Aluminum are reported in literature.12

Recently, with the worldwide-adopted vaccines against Human Papillomavirus (HPV), the debate was reawaken due to some adverse effects reported by some young subjects.

Specific studies communicated the existence of symptoms related to never-described-before syndromes developed after the vaccine was administered. For instance, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).13

The side-effects that can arise within a relatively short time can be local or systemic.

Pain at the site of injection, swelling and uncontrollable movement of the hands (though this last symptom can also be considered systemic) are described. Among the systemic effects, fever, headache, irritability, epileptic seizures, temporary speech loss, lower limbs dysaesthesia and paresis, hot flashes, sleep disorders, hypersensitivity reactions, muscle pain, recurrent syncope, constant hunger, significant gait impairment, incapacity to maintain the orthostatic posture are reported.

It is a matter of fact that every day millions of vaccine doses are administered and nothing notable happens, but it is also irrefutable that, regardless of the amount of side effects that are not recorded and the percentage of which remains in fact unknown, in a limited number cases something wrong occurs.

No satisfactory explanation or, in many cases, no explanation at all has been given and it seems that those adverse effects happen on a random and stochastic basis.

Those situations induced us to verify the safety of vaccines from a point of view which was never adopted before: not a biological, but a physical approach. So, we developed a new analysis method based on the use of a Field Emission Gun Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope investigations to detect possible physical contamination in those products.

Materials and methods

44 types of vaccines coming from 2 countries (Italy and France) were analyzed. Table 1 groups them in terms of name, brand and purpose.

Some vaccines, in fact a minority, are meant to deal with a single bacterium or virus, while others are multi-valent.

The list of vaccines we analyzed may contain repeated names, because we considered different batches and years of production of the same vaccine: the ones against influenza in particular.

The study was aimed at verifying a possible physical contamination.

To do that, we performed a new kind of investigation based on observations under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands) equipped with the X-ray microprobe of an Energy Dispersive Spectroscope (EDS, EDAX, Mahwah, NJ, USA) to detect the possible presence of inorganic, particulate contaminants and identify their chemical composition.

A drop of about 20microliter of vaccine is released from the syringe on a 25-mm-diameter cellulose filter (Millipore, USA), inside a flow cabinet. The filter is then deposited on an Aluminum stub covered with an adhesive carbon disc.

The sample is immediately put inside a clean box in order to avoid any contamination and the box is re-opened only for the sample to be inserted inside the FEG-ESEM chamber. We selected that particular type of microscope as it allows to analyse watery and oily samples in low vacuum (from 10 to 130 Pa) at a high sensitivity.

When the water and saline the vaccine contains are evaporated, the biological/physical components emerge on the filter and it is then possible to observe them. This type of microscope (low-vacuum observations) prevents the possible sample contamination and the creation of artefacts.

The observations are made with different sensors secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and are performed at a pressure of 8.9 e-1 mbar, at energies ranging from 10 to 30kV to detect the particulate matter’s size, morphology and its elemental composition. The method identifies clearly inorganic bodies with a higher atomic density (looking whiter) than the biological substrate. So, organic entities are visible and easy to distinguish from inorganic ones.

The method cannot distinguish between proteins and organic adjuvants (e.g. squalene, glutamate, proteins, etc.) or viruses, bacteria, bacteria’s DNA, endo-toxins and bacteria’s waste, but their comparatively low atomic density allows us to identify these entities as organic matter.

In some vaccines, the organic matter contains white-looking debris named aggregates, while a high concentration or inorganic debris is called a cluster.

Single inorganic particles or organic-inorganic aggregates are identified, evaluated and counted. The counting procedure is repeated three times by three different operators, with an error lower than 10%. When a layer of salts (Sodium chloride or Aluminum) is detected, we record the situation but we do not do body count.


The investigations verified the physical-chemical composition of the vaccines considered according to the inorganic component as declared by the Producer.

In detail, we verified the presence of saline and Aluminum salts, but further presence of micro-, sub-micro- and nanosized, inorganic, foreign bodies (ranging from 100nm to about ten microns) was identified in all cases, whose presence was not declared in the leaflets delivered in the package of the product (Table 2).

Play Video Figure 1a shows a layer of crystals of Sodium chloride (NaCl) embedding salts of Aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 ) in a drop of Gardasil (anti-HPV vaccine by Merck) as the EDS spectrum (Figure 1b) shows.

Saline is the fluid base to any vaccine preparation and Aluminum salts or Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 are the adjuvants which are usually added.

Looking at the area outside these precipitates but inside the liquid drop, we identified other things: single particles, clusters of particles and aggregates (organic-inorganic composites) that are due to an interaction of the inorganic particulate matter with the organic part of the vaccine.

As can be seen, the particles are surrounded and embedded in a biological substrate.

In all the samples analyzed, we identified particles containing:


  • Typhym

  • Cervarix

  • Agrippal S1

  • Meningites

  • Gardasil

Stainless steel

  • Mencevax

  • Infarix Hexa

  • Cervarix

  • Anatetall

  • Focetria

  • Agrippal S1

  • Menveo

  • Prevenar 13

  • Meningitec

  • Vaxigrip

  • Stamaril Pasteur

  • Repevax

  • MMRvaxPro

Tungsten, Aluminum, Calcium chloride

  • Prevenar

  • Infarix

Silicon, Gold, Silver

  • Repevax

  • Gardasil

Vivotif, Meningetec

  • Zirconium

  • Hafnium

  • Strontium

Priorix, Meningetec

  • Tungsten

  • Nickel

  • Iron

Antimony (Menjugate kit); Chromium (Meningetec);

Gold or Gold, Zinc (Infarix Hexa, Repevax),

Platinum, Silver, Bismuth, Iron, Chromium (MMRvaxPro)

Lead, Bismuth (Gardasil)

Cerium (Agrippal S1) were also found.

The only Tungsten appears in 8/44 vaccines, while Chromium (alone or in alloy with Iron and Nickel) in 25/44.

The investigations revealed that some particles are embedded in a biological substrate, probably proteins, endo-toxins and residues of bacteria.

As soon as a particle comes in contact with proteic fluids, a nano-bio-interaction6 occurs and a “protein corona” is formed.7‒10

The nano-bio-interaction generates a bigger-sized compound that is not biodegradable and can induce adverse effects, since it is not recognized as self by the body.


The quantity of foreign bodies detected and, in some cases, their unusual chemical compositions baffled us. The inorganic particles identified are neither biocompatible nor biodegradable, that means that they are biopersistent and can induce effects that can become evident either immediately close to injection time or after a certain time from administration.

It is important to remember that particles (crystals and not molecules) are bodies foreign to the organism and they behave as such. More in particular, their toxicity is in some respects different from that of the chemical elements composing them, adding to that toxicity which, in any case, is still there, that typical of foreign bodies. For that reason, they induce an inflammatory reaction.

After being injected, those microparticles, nanoparticles and aggregates can stay around the injection site forming swellings and granulomas.17 But they can also be carried by the blood circulation, escaping any attempt to guess what will be their final destination.

We believe that in many cases they get distributed throughout the body without causing any visible reaction, but it is also likely that, in some circumstances, they reach some organ, none excluded and including the microbiota, in a fair quantity.

As happens with all foreign bodies, particularly that small, they induce an inflammatory reaction that is chronic because most of those particles cannot be degraded.

Furthermore, the protein-corona effect (due to a nanobio-interaction18 can produce organic/inorganic composite particles capable of stimulating the immune system in an undesirable way.19‒22

It is impossible not to add that particles the size often observed in vaccines can enter cell nuclei and interact with the DNA.23 In some cases, e.g. as occurs with Iron and some Iron alloys, they can corrode and the corrosion products exert a toxicity affecting the tissues.24‒26

The detection of presence of Aluminum and NaCl salts is obvious as they are substances used by the Producers and declared as components, but other materials are not supposed to be in the vaccine or in any other injectable drug, at that, and, in any case, Aluminum has already been linked with neurological diseases.27‒29 Given the contaminations we observed in all samples of humanuse vaccines, adverse effects after the injection of those vaccines are possible and credible and have the character of randomness, since they depend on where the contaminants are carried by the blood circulation. It is only obvious that similar quantities of these foreign bodies can have a more serious impact on very small organisms like those of children.

Their presence in the muscles, due an extravasation from the blood, could heavily impair the muscle functionality.30,31

We come across particles with chemical compositions, similar to those found in the vaccines we analyzed, when we study cases of environmental contamination caused by different pollution sources.

In most circumstances, the combinations detected are very odd as they have no technical use, cannot be found in any material handbook and look like the result of the random formation occurring, for example, when waste is burnt.

In any case, whatever their origin, they should not be present in any injectable medicament, let alone in vaccines, more in particular those meant for infants.

Other forms of so-far unknown contaminations have recently been observed and, in any case, vaccines contain components that could themselves be the cause of adverse effects.

It is a well-known fact in toxicology that contaminants exert a mutual, synergic effect, and as the number of contaminants increases, the effects grow less and less predictable.

The more so when some substances are unknown.

As a matter of fact, no exhaustive and reliable official data exist on the side-effects induced by vaccines.

The episodic evidence reported by people allegedly damaged by vaccines is twofold: some say the damage occurred and became visible within a few hours from administration, and some maintain that it was a matter of some weeks.

Though we have no indisputable evidence as to the reliability of those attestations, we can put forward a hypothesis to explain the different phenomena. In the former case, the pollutants contained in the drug have reached the brain and, depending on the anatomical site interested, have induced a reaction.

If that is the case, the whole phenomenon is very rapid. In the latter circumstance, the pollutants reached the microbiota, thus interfering with the production of enzymes necessary to carry out neurological functions.32‒35

That possibility takes time, as it involves the production of chemical compounds in a sufficient quantity, and an elapse of some weeks between injection and clinical evidence is reasonable.

Of course, ours is no more than a hypothesis open to discussion and in need of proof, hoping that a chance of further investigation is allowed.


The analyses carried out show that in all samples checked vaccines contain non biocompatible and bio-persistent foreign bodies which are not declared by the Producers, against which the body reacts in any case.

This new investigation represents a new quality control that can be adopted to assess the safety of a vaccine.

Our hypothesis is that this contamination is unintentional, since it is probably due to polluted components or procedures of industrial processes (e.g. filtrations) used to produce vaccines, not investigated and not detected by the Producers.

If our hypothesis is actually the case, a close inspection of the working places and the full knowledge of the whole procedure of vaccine preparation would probably allow to eliminate the problem.

A further purification of the vaccines could improve their quality and could probably decrease the number and seriousness of the adverse incidental effects.

Conflicts of interest

Author declares there are no conflicts of interest.


A Gatti - IJVV-04-00072
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Which Vaccines Were Tested?


Allergen Immunotherapy

Used in the US: No Contaminants Identified: Aluminum Ingredients Listed: Yes Number of unreported contaminants: 0

Aluminum is identified in the package insert[10].

Typhim Vi

For use against typhoid fever for those two years of age and older, and is often recommended for travel[11]

Used in the US: Yes Contaminants Identified: Bromine, Lead, Ferrochrome, Chlorine, Silicon, Titanium Ingredients Listed: hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, formaldehyde, phenol, polydimethylsiloxane, disodium phosphate, monosodium phosphate, semi-synthetic medium, sodium chloride [12] Number of unreported contaminants: 4


Tetanus immunotherapy after exposure[13]

Used in the US: No – often given in Bangledesh and Serbia Contaminants Identified: Silicon, Magnesium, Iron, Titanium, Aluminum, Zinc Ingredients Listed: Tetanus Immune Globulin [14] Number of unreported contaminants: 6

Vivotif Berna

Live typhoid vaccine often recommended for travelers or those who have been exposed to typhoid fever[15]

Used in the US: Yes Contaminants Identified: Iron, Aluminum, Zirconium, Hydogen Fluoride, Strontium, Bismuth, Chloride Ingredients Listed: yeast extract, casein, dextrose, galactose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, amino acids, lactose, magnesium stearate. gelatin Number of unreported contaminants: 7

Inflexal V

Vaccine used against influenza[16]

Used in the US: No -often given in Europe Contaminants Identified: Copper, Tin, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Calcium, Silicon, Aluminum, Sodium Phosphide, Titanium Contaminants Listed: Sodium chloride, Egg protein, Virus: Influenza, Disodium dehydrogenate phosphate, Potassium dehydrogenate phosphate, Lecithin Number of unreported contaminants: 8


Vaccine used against tetanus[18]

Used in the US: No – often given in Italy Contaminants Identified: Iron, Aluminum, Zinc Suflide, Barium Ingredients Listed: No Ingredients list not found


Vaccine used against measles, mumps, and rubella[20]

Used in the US: No – often given in New Zealand Contaminants Identified: None Ingredients Listed: N/A

Mencevax ACWY

Vaccine used against meningitis, is routinely given at 11-12 and 16-18 years old [21]

Used in the US: Yes Contaminants Identified: Iron, Chromium, Nickel, Zirconium, Aluminum, Silicon Ingredients Listed: Watson Scherp media containing casamino acid, modified culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein, ammonium sulfate, sodium phosphate, formaldehyde, sodium chloride Number of unreported contaminants: 6


Vaccine used against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Is routinely given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 months, and 4-6 years old [22]

Used in the US: Yes Contaminants Identified: Aluminum, Titanium, Silicon Ingredients Listed: Fenton medium containing a bovine extract, modified Latham medium derived from bovine casein, formaldehyde, modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Number of unreported contaminants: 2

Infanrix Hexa

Six-in-One combination vaccine used against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hep B, and Hib. Is routinely given at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 5 months [23]

Used in the US: No – often given in Canada and Australia Contaminants Identified: Barium, Iron, Copper, Silicon, Aluminum, Calcium, Magnesium, Titanium, Gold, Tin, Chromium, Zinc, Stainless Steel, Nickel Ingredients Listed: lactose, sodium chloride, aluminum adjuvant (as aluminum salts), water for injection, residual formaldehyde, polysorbate 20 and 80 (Tween 20 and 80), M199, potassium chloride, disodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate, glycine, neomycin sulphate, polymyxin B sulphate and aluminum phosphate [24] Number of unreported contaminants: 12


Vaccine used to prevent typhoid fever in children and adults [25]

Used in the US: No – often given in the UK Contaminants Identified: Titanium, Stainless Steel, Aluminum, Silicon, Chromium, Barium Ingredients Listed: Vi polysaccharide antigen, sodium chloride, disodium phosphate dihydrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, phenol and water [26] Number of unreported contaminants: 6


Combined vaccine used against measles, mumps, and rubella. Is routinely given at 12 and 18 months old [27]

Used in the US: No – often given in Canada Contaminants Identified: Stainless Steel, Calcium, Iron, Copper, Silicon, Aluminum, Magnesium, Lead, Titanium, Nickel Ingredients Listed: Lyophilized powder for injection, Amino acids, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, and water for injection. Residue: neomycin sulphate Number of unreported contaminants: 10


Vaccine used against Hepatitis B. is routinely given at birth, 2 months, and 6 months old [28]

Used in the US: Yes Contaminants Identified: Aluminum Ingredients Listed: aluminum hydroxide, yeast protein, sodium chloride, disodium phosphate dihydrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate Number of unreported contaminants: 0


Live virus vaccine used against Varicella (chickenpox). It is routinely given to children 9 months and older – 2 doses are administered six weeks apart [29]

Used in the US: No – often given in Australia and New Zealand Contaminants Identified: Iron, Zinc, Silicon, Aluminum, Titanium, Magnesium, Zirconium, Bismuth Ingredients Listed: live weakened varicella-z