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100 links on Graphene & magnetism

1. Graphene doped with hydrogen reveals its magnetism

Extract: Hydrogen atoms can induce magnetism in graphene and be used to create a uniform magnetic order across the 1D material. That is the finding of researchers in Spain, France and Egypt, who also demonstrated that it is possible to atomically manipulate hydrogen atoms on graphene to control the local magnetic state.

2. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle delivery of DNA vaccine

Abstract: The efficiency of delivery of DNA vaccines is often relatively low compared to protein vaccines. The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to deliver genes via magnetofection shows promise in improving the efficiency of gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the duration for gene transfection especially for in vitro application can be significantly reduced by magnetofection compared to the time required to achieve high gene transfection with standard protocols. SPIONs that have been rendered stable in physiological conditions can be used as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their unique magnetic characteristics. Valuable features of iron oxide nanoparticles in bioapplications include a tight control over their size distribution, magnetic properties of these particles, and the ability to carry particular biomolecules to specific targets. The internalization and half-life of the particles within the body depend upon the method of synthesis. Numerous synthesis methods have been used to produce magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications with different sizes and surface charges. The most common method for synthesizing nanometer-sized magnetite Fe3O4 particles in solution is by chemical coprecipitation of iron salts. The coprecipitation method is an effective technique for preparing a stable aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanoparticles. We describe the production of Fe3O4-based SPIONs with high magnetization values (70 emu/g) under 15 kOe of the applied magnetic field at room temperature, with 0.01 emu/g remanence via a coprecipitation method in the presence of trisodium citrate as a stabilizer. Naked SPIONs often lack sufficient stability, hydrophilicity, and the capacity to be functionalized. In order to overcome these limitations, polycationic polymer was anchored on the surface of freshly prepared SPIONs by a direct electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged SPIONs (due to the presence of carboxylic groups) and the positively charged polymer. Polyethylenimine was chosen to modify the surface of SPIONs to assist the delivery of plasmid DNA into mammalian cells due to the polymer's extensive buffering capacity through the "proton sponge" effect”

3. The EMBO Journal: Is magnetogenetics the new optogenetics?

Extract: Optogenetics has revolutionised neuroscience as it enables investigators to establish causal relationships between neuronal activity and a behavioural outcome in a temporally precise manner. It is a powerful technology, but limited by the necessity to deliver light to the cells of interest, which often requires invasive surgery and a tethered light source. Magnetogenetics aims to overcome these issues by manipulating neurons with magnetic stimuli. As magnetic fields can pass freely through organic tissue, it requires no surgery or tethering the animals to an energy source. In this commentary, we assess the utility of magnetogenetics based on three different approaches: magneto-thermo-genetics; force/torque-based methods; and expression of the iron chaperone ISCA1. Despite some progress, many hurdles need to be overcome if magnetogenetics is to take the helm from optogenetics”

4. Using a smartphone and engineered cells to control diabetes in mice

Medical Xpress—“A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China has developed a way to combine a smartphone with a glucose monitor and engineered cells to automatically control insulin levels in test mice. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine the team describes their technique and how well it worked in the mice. Mark Gomelsk with the University of Wyoming offers a Focus piece in the same issue highlighting the work done by the team”

5. The Graphene Flagship values ethics in all aspects of the project, from research topics to societal implications.

Extract: The following three areas are of particular interest, but may change as the Flagship progresses towards higher technology readiness level (TRL):Ethics of biological, health and environmental effects of graphene, and on biomedical and related applications. Any of these might involve in vitro research, small or large animal models, and eventually human interventions.Dual use. While all the research has an exclusively civilian focus, some of the technologies developed might find broader uses. This issue is becoming more important as the Flagship moves to higher TRLs.Responsible research and innovation. Since the Flagship covers a very broad range of topics, it has a wide variety of societal connections.

6. Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control

Abstract: Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. The emergence of magnetic properties in materials is reviewed to clarify the distinction between biomolecules containing transition metals and ferrite nanoparticles that exhibit significant net moments. We describe recent developments in the use of magnetic nanomaterials as transducers converting magnetic stimuli to forms readily perceived by neurons and discuss opportunities for multiplexed and bidirectional control as well as the challenges posed by delivery to the brain. The variety of magnetic field conditions and mechanisms by which they can be coupled to neuronal signaling cascades highlights the desirability of continued interchange between magnetism physics and neurobiology.

7. Stanford physicists discover new quantum trick for graphene: magnetism

Extract: Physicists were stunned when two twisted sheets of graphene showed signs of superconductivity. Now Stanford scientists have shown that the wonder material also generates a type of magnetism once only dreamed of theoretically.

8. Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

Abstract :Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) are widely used in many fields, especially in biomedical applications. Currently, many studies have investigated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GFNs in vivo and in intro. Generally, GFNs may exert different degrees of toxicity in animals or cell models by following with different administration routes and penetrating through physiological barriers, subsequently being distributed in tissues or located in cells, eventually being excreted out of the bodies. This review collects studies on the toxic effects of GFNs in several organs and cell models. We also point out that various factors determine the toxicity of GFNs including the lateral size, surface structure, functionalization, charge, impurities, aggregations, and corona effect ect. In addition, several typical mechanisms underlying GFN toxicity have been revealed, for instance, physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In these mechanisms, (toll-like receptors-) TLR-, transforming growth factor β- (TGF-β-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dependent-pathways are involved in the signalling pathway network, and oxidative stress plays a crucial role in these pathways. In this review, we summarize the available information on regulating factors and the mechanisms of GFNs toxicity, and propose some challenges and suggestions for further investigations of GFNs, with the aim of completing the toxicology mechanisms, and providing suggestions to improve the biological safety of GFNs and facilitate their wide application.

9. Lentinan-Modified Carbon Nanotubes as an Antigen Delivery System Modulate Immune Response in Vitro and in Vivo

Abstract: Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and sustain long-term immune responses. As vital components of vaccines, efficient adjuvants are highly desirable. Recent evidence regarding the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to act as a support material has suggested that certain properties, such as their unique hollow structure, high specific surface area, and chemical stability, make CNTs desirable for a variety of antigen-delivery applications. Lentinan, a β-1,3-glucohexaose with β-1,6-branches that is extracted from the mushroom Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug that has been clinically used in Japan and China, and recent studies have proved that specific beta-glucans can bind to various immune receptors. In this research, we covalently attached lentinan to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and tested their ability to enhance immune responses as a vaccine delivery system. In vitro study results showed that the nanotube constructs could rapidly enter dendritic cells and carry large amounts of antigen. Moreover, maturation markers were significantly upregulated versus the control. Thus, lentinan-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (L-MWCNTs) were regarded as an effective intracellular antigen depot and a catalyzer that could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells. Furthermore, compared with L-MWCNTs (35 μg/mL), a corresponding concentration of carboxylic carbon nanotubes (C-MWCNTs, 31.8 μg/mL) and an equivalent concentration of lentinan (3.2 μg/mL) did not remarkably influence the immune reaction in vitro or in vivo. Hence, we can hypothesize that the capability of L-MWCNTs was a consequence of the increased intracellular quantity of lentinan grafted onto the nanotubes. Overall, our studies demonstrated that L-MWCNTs significantly increased antigen accumulation in the cells and potentiated cellular and humoral immunity. In conclusion, L-MWCNTs constitute a potential vaccine delivery system to enhance immunogenicity for therapeutic purposes.

10.Wearing face masks coated in graphene can cause serious lung problems, warns Health Canada

Extract: Wearing face masks could cause catastrophic lung problems, especially if they are the kind coated with graphene. This is despite the fact that advocates of masks and mask mandates believe that wearing them is essential to preventing the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) from spreading.

11.Polymer Embedded With Metallic Nanoparticles Enables Soft Robotics

Extract “Nanomaterials are increasingly viewed as important ingredients in artificial muscles meant to power different types of robots. Carbon nanotubes have been proposed as well as graphene. Now researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU), in Raleigh, have developed a technique for embedding nanoparticles of magnetite—an iron oxide—into a polymer so that when the material comes near a magnetic field the polymer moves. The researchers believe that the nanoparticle-studded polymer could lead to a method of remotely controlling so-called “soft robots” whose flexible components allow them to move around in tight spaces in a manner reminiscent of octopodes.”

12.Scientists Flip Switch on Genes With a Magnet

Extract: Matching the brain’s machinery to behaviors and emotions was risky business throughout much of medical history. It was achievable, more or less, only through clumsy techniques such as lobotomies. Examiners who removed chunks of the brain could observe the surgery’s effects, but patients had to live with the results.

13.The Royal Society of Chemistry

“A high impact, peer reviewed journal publishing experimental and theoretical work across the breadth of nanoscience and nanotechnology”

14.Patent: WO2020060606 - CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA;jsessionid=51863C7BA861B436D7F5BA2F806D0DC7.wapp2nA?docId=WO2020060606&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

BACKGROUND :”[0001] A virtual currency (also known as a digital currency) is a medium of exchange implemented through the Internet generally, not tied to a specific government-backed “flat” (printed) currency such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro, and typically designed to allow instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership. One example of virtual currency is cryptocurrency, wherein cryptography is used to secure transactions and to control the creation of new units.

[0002] Several cryptocurrencies exist. Among these, the most well known is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Most blockchain-based cryptocurrency is decentralized in the sense that it has no central point of control. However, blockchain-based cryptocurrency can also be implemented in a centralized system having a central point of control over the cryptocurrency. Bitcoin is one of the examples of blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is described in a 2008 article by Satoshi Nakamoto, named“Bitcoin: “

15.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modulate hERG ion channel activity

Abstract: “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for drug delivery vehicles and in hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Although the potential benefits of SPIONs are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with their use. Since human ether à go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a protein involved in the repolarization phase of cardiac action potential, is considered one of the main targets in the drug discovery process, we decided to evaluate the effects of SPIONs on hERG channel activity and to determine whether the oxidation state, the dimensions and the coating of nanoparticles (NPs) can influence the interaction with hERG channel. Using patch clamp recordings, we found that SPIONs inhibit hERG current and this effect depends on the coating of NPs. In particular, SPIONs with covalent coating aminopropylphosphonic acid (APPA) have a milder effect on hERG activity. We observed that the time-course of hERG channel modulation by SPIONs is biphasic, with a transient increase (∼20% of the amplitude) occurring within the first 1-3 min of perfusion of NPs, followed by a slower inhibition. Moreover, in the presence of SPIONs, deactivation kinetics accelerated and the activation and inactivation I-V curves were right-shifted, similarly to the effect described for the binding of other divalent metal ions (e.g. Cd2+ and Zn2+). Finally, our data show that a bigger size and the complete oxidation of SPIONs can significantly decrease hERG channel inhibition. Taken together, these results support the view that Fe2+ ions released from magnetite NPs may represent a cardiac risk factor, since they alter hERG gating and these alterations could compromise the cardiac action potential”

16.SARS-CoV-2 Magnetic Beads and Plates

Extract We provide pre-coupled magnetic beads coupled with biotinylated SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein and SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein to streptavidin conjugated magnetic beads, suitable for capturing the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies or ACE2 protein from cell or serum samples.


“Magnetofection™ is a novel, simple and highly efficient method to transfect cells in culture. It exploits magnetic force exerted upon gene vectors associated with magnetic particles to draw the vectors towards, possibly even into, the target cells. In this manner, the full vector dose applied gets concentrated on the cells within a few minutes so that 100% of the cells get in contact with a significant vector dose.”

18.Nano coronavirus recombinant vaccine taking graphene oxide as carrier

Abstract: “The invention belongs to the field of nano materials and biomedicine, and relates to a vaccine, in particular to development of 2019-nCoV coronavirus nuclear recombinant nano vaccine. The invention also comprises a preparation method of the vaccine and application of the vaccine in animal experiments. The new corona vaccine contains graphene oxide, carnosine, CpG and new corona virus RBD; binding carnosine, CpG and neocoronavirus RBD on the backbone of graphene oxide; the CpG coding sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO 1; the novel coronavirus RBD refers to a novel coronavirus protein receptor binding region which can generate a high-titer specific antibody aiming at the RBD in a mouse body, and provides a strong support for prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus”

19.Preparation and application of pachyman nano adjuvant based on graphene oxide and adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine

Abstract:”Preparation and application of pachyman nano adjuvant and adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine based on graphene oxide, belonging to the field of medicines. The invention comprises a pachyman nano adjuvant which is formed by taking a nano graphene oxide material as a carrier and pachyman loaded on the carrier, and an adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine formed by the adjuvant and an antigen. The pachyman nanometer adjuvant can promote dendritic cell maturation, enhance lymphocyte function, facilitate drug release, effectively prolong drug effect, prevent immune tolerance, and greatly enhance immune effect and reaction time. The adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine enhances the bioavailability of pachyman and antigen, enables the antigen and the adjuvant to be ingested by the same cell, greatly enhances the targeting property of the vaccine, and can induce not only humoral immunity but also stronger cellular immunity. The invention is used as a novel adjuvant and vaccine, and can be expected to be used for preventing and treating human diseases”


Extract: “For the past few months, hundreds of amateur videos have been popping up allover social media featuring people who have visibly become electromagnetic following vaccination. After many questions were raised by a number of our members about this "supposed" electromagnetic effect in vaccinated subjects, our association decided to take a concrete interest in this intriguing subject. This survey, of a purely statistical and sociological nature, on this supposed electromagnetic effect, which is the subject of this report, raises at least three important questions: 1. Is it true that people show an electromagnetic effect after vaccination? 2. If so, is it true that only vaccinated individuals show this effect? 3. What is actually injected into individuals under the qualification of vaccine that causes this effect? To try to answer these questions, the survey was entrusted to Mr. Amar GOUDJIL, treasurer of the association and member in charge of demographic and sociological issues”

21.Targeted Dream Incubation

Extract: “Targeted Dream Incubation is a method for guiding dreams towards specific themes. It is a proposal both magnetic and unlikely: Can we really engineer dreams, our internal worlds that feel so fundamentally out of our control?”

22.Advertising in Dreams is Coming: Now What?

Extract: “Molson Coors recently announced a new kind of advertising campaign. Timed for the days before Super Bowl Sunday, it was designed to infiltrate our dreams [1]. They planned to use "targeted dream incubation" (TDI) [2] to alter the dreams of the nearly 100 million Super Bowl viewers the night before the game”

23.Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Graphene Functionalized with Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Healthcare Applications

Abstract: Graphene has attracted wide consideration in recent years to the assembly of sensitive sensors and biosensors due to its unique and remarkable physical and electrochemical properties. Moreover, graphene, as an essential two-dimensional carbon material with remarkably high quartz and electronic superiority, has also received significant research attention. This review presents the different synthesis techniques of graphene; graphene functionalized based electrochemical sensors and biosensors for various health care appellations. Further, were discussed on the basis of enhanced catalytic activity, improved detection limit in conjunction with sensitivity, and selectivity. Synergistic action of graphene and metal oxide nanostructure has contributed towards high activity as a biosensing material. The results with different sensors and biosensors for the detection of significant biomarkers such as protein sensor, electrochemical immune sensor, phytochrome sensor, cholesterol biosensor glucose, hydrogen peroxide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide detection sensor etc., and highlighted the use of graphene and functionalized graphene in different sensing platforms. Finally, the challenges related to less aggregated graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as future research directions are discussed.


25.Magnetofection: Magic magnetic nanoparticles for efficient gene delivery

Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become a research hotspot and widely used in the biomedical field in recent decades due to their unique magnetic properties. This minireview summarizes the specific gene transfection of magnetic particles (magnetofection) during eversy dynamic process of gene delivery (gene binding, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking and in vivo targeting). Meanwhile, the synergistic biomedical application of magnetofection and the effects of MNPs have also been discussed, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic mediated hyperthermia (MMH), Fenton reaction and autophagy. Finally, the clinical prospect of magnetofection was briefly expected.


Extract: Magnetofection is a transfection method that uses magnetic fields to concentrate particles containing nucleic acid and in-utero samples to the target cells of the body.[1] This method attempts to unite the advantages of the biochemical (cationic lipids or polymer atoms) and physical (electroporation, gene gun) transfection methods in one system while excluding their inconveniences (low efficiency, toxicity)


Extract: RNA therapeutics is booming and the mRNA field is generating huge expectations. Although microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), self-amplifying RNA (sa RNA) and genome editing systems containing RNA components like guide RNA (gRNA), represent useful tools in research and clinics.

28.Helix-IN Transfection Reagent

Extract: Helix-IN™ DNA Transfection Reagent opens up new possibilities for addressing issues of classical transfection technologies. OZ Biosciences revolutionizes Polyfection with the design of Helix-IN™, a novel patented Cationic Hydroxylated Amphiphilic Multi-block Polymer (CHAMP™ Technology). This novel bi-functional co-polymer is biocompatible, ionizable, pH responsive and biodegradable.


Extract: “Magnetogenetics refers to a biological technique that involves the use of magnetic fields to remotely control cell activity.

In most cases, magnetic stimulation is transformed into either force (magneto-mechanical genetics) or heat (magneto-thermal genetics), which depends on the applied magnetic field. Therefore, cells are usually genetically modified to express ion channels that are either mechanically or thermally gated. As such, magnetogenetics is a cellular modulation method that uses a combination of techniques from magnetism and genetics to control activities of individual cells in living tissue – even within freely moving animals.”

30.La Quinta Columna explains how graphene multiplies frequencies and damages cells, and how reducing agents help to control that damage

Extract: La Quinta Columna is slowly getting closer to the studies they need to prove their hypothesis about the relationship between graphene and 5G and how this combination would contribute to damage people who have the nanomaterial in their bodies.

31.La Quinta Columna discusses a study on the properties of graphene and their link with EMF

Extract: La Quinta Columna explains how graphene multiplies frequencies and damages cells, and how reducing agents help to control that damage (part 2)

32.La Quinta Columna on Neuromodulation and Brain Dysfunction Tsunami

Extract: La Quinta Columna explaining more about the tsunami of neurological dysfunctions announced by the globalist media, dysfunctions derived from the damage caused by graphene oxide and electromagnetic frequencies in the GHz range.

33.La Quinta Columna: Graphene Oxide toxicity causes Erectile Dysfunction and Sperm Toxicity

Extract : Many men have reported experiencing erectile dysfunction after being vaccinated. This side effect is directly related to low zinc levels produced by the presence of graphene oxide in the body.

34.La Quinta Columna: Zinc helps raise glutathione levels and glutathione helps degrade graphene oxide

ExtractLa Quinta Columna research on how to detoxify graphene in the body. The team already mentioned that N-acetylcysteine and glutathione certainly work to degrade graphene, but today they talked about a very readily available supplement: zinc.

35.La Quinta Columna comments on the mysterious patent that attempts to normalize the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines

Extract: La Quinta Columna addresses the patent that appeared in Google Patents on the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines.

36.Potentially false patent on the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines appears a few hours ago

37.Dr. Luis Marcelo Martínez talks about the toxicity of graphene and scientific literature with false publication dates

Extract: The interview covered topics such as the non-existence of the Spike protein and the presence of graphene and other nano-components that should not be in a vaccine.

38.Dr. Luis Marcelo Martínez: 'The Spike protein is nothing more than graphene inside your body and spiking you'

Extract :Dr. Martinez explains that the pandemic must be treated from an engineering point of view and not only from a health point of view since it was discovered that vaccines contain graphene oxide, but experts in the area of electromagnetism must also be brought in to understand how to deal with what we are experiencing

39.BREAKING: La Quinta Columna shares photos of graphene oxide detected in AstraZeneca vaccination vial

Extract: Photos of graphene oxide in AstraZeneca's vaccination vial.

40.Observation of magnetic domains in graphene magnetized by controlling temperature, strain and magnetic field

Abstract:Since the production of ferromagnetic graphene as an extremely important matter in spintronics has made a revolution in future technology, a great deal of efforts has recently been done to reach a simple and cost-effective method. Up to now, controlling the magnetic properties at extremely low temperature have been investigated only by adding and removing atoms in graphene lattice. In this regard, the effect of strain on the magnetic and electronic properties of graphene has been probed. Here, the ferromagnetic properties are what have been created by strain, magnetic field, and temperature along with observation of the parallel magnetic domains in ferromagnetic graphene for the first time as a great achievement. In this way, we have represented the following: First, introducing three novel methods based on temperature, magnetic field, and strain for producing ferromagnetic graphene; Second, obtaining ferromagnetic graphene at room temperature by significant magnetization saturation in mass-scale; Third, probing the electronic systems and vibrational modes by Raman and IR spectroscopy; Fourth, introducing stacking and aggregation as two types of gathering process for graphene sheets; Fifth, comparing the results with leidenfrost effect-based method which the temperature, magnetic fields, and strain are simultaneously applied to graphene flakes (our previous work).

41.Interfacing Graphene-Based Materials With Neural Cells

Extract: The scientific community has witnessed an exponential increase in the applications of graphene and graphene-based materials in a wide range of fields, from engineering to electronics to biotechnologies and biomedical applications. For what concerns neuroscience, the interest raised by these materials is two-fold. On one side, nanosheets made of graphene or graphene derivatives (graphene oxide, or its reduced form) can be used as carriers for drug delivery. Here, an important aspect is to evaluate their toxicity, which strongly depends on flake composition, chemical functionalization and dimensions. On the other side, graphene can be exploited as a substrate for tissue engineering. In this case, conductivity is probably the most relevant amongst the various properties of the different graphene materials, as it may allow to instruct and interrogate neural networks, as well as to drive neural growth and differentiation, which holds a great potential in regenerative medicine. In this review, we try to give a comprehensive view of the accomplishments and new challenges of the field, as well as which in our view are the most exciting directions to take in the immediate future. These include the need to engineer multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) able to cross the blood-brain-barrier to reach neural cells, and to achieve on-demand delivery of specific drugs. We describe the state-of-the-art in the use of graphene materials to engineer three-dimensional scaffolds to drive neuronal growth and regeneration in vivo, and the possibility of using graphene as a component of hybrid composites/multi-layer organic electronics devices. Last but not least, we address the need of an accurate theoretical modeling of the interface between graphene and biological material, by modeling the interaction of graphene with proteins and cell membranes at the nanoscale, and describing the physical mechanism(s) of charge transfer by which the various graphene materials can influence the excitability and physiology of neural cells.

42.Europe Has Invested €1 Billion Into Graphene—But For What?

Extract: Six years into an ambitious 10-year research project, experts weigh in on whether the Graphene Flagship can help the “wonder material” make it through the Valley of Death.

43.Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations

Background: Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.

44.Magnetic Drug Targeting: A Novel Treatment for Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors

Abstract: Most applications of nanotechnology in cancer have focused on systemic delivery of cytotoxic drugs. Systemic delivery relies on accumulation of nanoparticles in a target tissue through enhanced permeability of leaky vasculature and retention effect of poor lymphatic drainage to increase the therapeutic index. Systemic delivery is limited, however, by toxicity and difficulty crossing natural obstructions, like the blood spine barrier. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a new technique to reach tumors of the central nervous system. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic approach for high-grade intramedullary spinal cord tumors using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). Using biocompatible compounds to form a superparamagnetic carrier and magnetism as a physical stimulus, MNP-conjugated with doxorubicin were successfully localized to a xenografted tumor in a rat model. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that MDT may provide a novel technique for effective, concentrated delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to intramedullary spinal cord tumors without the toxicity of systemic administration.

45.Could Magnetic Hydrogel Explain the COVID Vax Magnet Phenomenon?

Extract: Is magnetic hydrogel the cause, given the recent studies showing it can be magnetically activated and remotely controlled via the Smart Grid? Or are there other explanations involving metallic nanoparticles?

46.Synthetic Biology: Advancing New Applications

Extract: We are no longer talking about simply cutting and pasting DNA but actually being able to program the specific nucleotide code that goes into a cell,” says Timothy Lu, associate member of the Broad Institute and director of the Synthetic Biology Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This reprogramming lies at the heart of the relatively new and rapidly expanding field of synthetic biology, which is allowing scientists to begin developing, simulating, testing, and building cells for a range of applications.

47.Exploring Biodigital Convergence